Educationalization of social and moral issues in the western world
and the “educationalization of the world”:
Historical dimensions through time and space

An international symposium held at Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile,
Santiago Chile August 1 - August 4 2017.

About the event

This symposium reunites scholars from the Theory and History of Education Research Group housed in the Faculty of Education, Queen’s University, and the History of Education Research Group from the Faculty of History, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, with the participation of the Centre for the Study of Educational Policy and Practices at the same university. The guiding purpose of the Symposium is to introduce a new examination of the conceptualization and historical interpretation of the phenomenon identified as educationalization.

The symposium places the debate on educationalization in a new light by introducing the approach of the Catholic Church to education and educationalization from early modernity onwards. The discussion then moves to educationalization and contemporary issues, providing not only a theoretical frame of reference, but also policy analysis and empirically grounded research. Topics of discussion include recontextualization of curriculum, educationalization and technologization, educationalization as citizenship education, and educationalization of spirituality.

The Catholic role in educationalization in its various political and theological dimensions is brought to the table by examining the role of Catholic congregations in Canada, Spain, and Latin America. Papers on educationalization and democracy in the digital era examine technological possibilities for expanding access to information, as well as ways in which information is manipulated. Finally, questions of educationalization, coloniality, and decoloniality in Chile and Canada will be addressed from philosophical and historical standpoints, and also by means of a discourse analysis exploring post-colonial sediments in the discourses of young Aboriginal people.

This event will provide a unique interdisciplinary approach to educationalization and its historical dimensions through time and place. We hope that the content and perspectives presented at this symposium will generate original perspectives on a timely subject.

Participant Biographies

(In order of paper presentation)

Daniel Tröhler (Ph.D. and Habilitation, University of Zürich) is Professor of Educational Foundations at the University of Vienna and visiting Professor of Comparative Education at the University of Granada, Spain. His latest publications include Languages of Education: Protestant Legacies, National Identities, and Global Aspirations (Routledge 2011) (AERA Outstanding Book of the Year Award) that was translated into Spanish (Barcelona: Octaedro), Pestalozzi and the Educationalization of the World (Palgrave Pivot 2013) and The medicalization of current educational research and its effects on education policy and school reforms (Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 2015) that was translated into Spanish 2015 (Profesorado. Revista de currículum y formación del profesorado, 19(1), 368-383).

Rosa Bruno-Jofré is Professor at and former Dean (2000-2010) of the Faculty of Education, cross-appointed to the Department of History, Faculty of Art and Sciences, at Queen’s University, Canada. Her areas of expertise are history of women religious, history of education, and educational theory from a historical perspective. Her current research is funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Over the past few years, she has worked with Jon Igelmo Zaldívar to analyse the life and work of Ivan Illich. Her recent authored and co-authored articles have appeared in Educational Theory, Hispania Sacra, Paedagogica Historica, Journal of Ecclesiastical History (Cambridge), American Catholic Review, Historical Studies (Canadian Catholic Historical Association), Bordón, Bildungsgeschichte, and International Journal for the Historiography of Education, among others. She has authored and edited books, independently and with colleagues, published by McGill-Queen’s University Press, University of Toronto Press, Routledge, and Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Samuel Rocha is Assistant Professor of Philosophy of Education at the University of British Columbia where he is a member of the Common Room at Green College. He was born in Brownsville, Texas, and has lived throughout the United States (and five years in Mexico) before moving to Canada. As a Gates Millennium Scholar, he did his undergraduate studies in philosophy and Spanish literature and a master’s in educational leadership before, as a Gates Fellow, he completed master’s and doctoral work in philosophy of education at The Ohio State University. He is the book review editor for Studies in Philosophy and Education, editor of Pastoral Theology at Syndicate Theology, an active member of the Philosophy of Education Society, and immediate past president of the Society for the Philosophical Study of Education. Rocha is interested in making and offering descriptions of the ontological aspects of education, study, teaching, curriculum, and schooling. He is author of A Primer for Philosophy and Education (Cascade 2014) and has released two musical works: Freedom for Love (indie 2011) and Late to Love (Wiseblood 2014). Later this year Rocha’s next book, Folk Phenomenology: Education, Study, and the Human Person, will be released by Pickwick Publications. Two more on Ivan Illich are forthcoming in 2016 and 2017 with Cascade and Springer.

Patricia Quiroga Uceda is a Postdoctoral Researcher at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (Spain). She defended her thesis entitled “The reception of Waldorf education” at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) in 2015 under the supervision of Gonzalo Jover Olmeda and Rosa Bruno-Jofré. Her thesis received the Premio Extraordinario de Doctorado (Extraordinary Doctoral Price). She has been visiting PhD student at Pädagogische Hochschule Ludwigsburg (Germany), Roehampton University (England) and at Queen’s University (Canada). She is an associate member of the Theory and History of Education International Research Group (THEIRG) and an external member of the research group Cultura Cívica y Políticas Educativas (Universidad Complutense de Madrid).

Josh Cole earned his PhD in the Department of History at Queen’s University in 2015. His research interests include the history of education, media history, and cultural politics. He has published in journals including Historical Studies in Education /Revue d'histoire de l'éducation, Encounters on Education / Encuentros sobre educación / Rencontres sur l'éducation, Teachers College Record, and Sembrando Ideas. He has co-written work with Rosa Bruno-Jofré for the collections Teacher Education in a Transnational World (University of Toronto Press, 2014) and Pädagogisches Wissen in der Lehrerinnen-und Lehrerbildung / Educational Knowledge in Teacher Education (Germany: Klinhardt 2016). He is a Member of the Theory and History of Education International Research Group.

Felicitas Acosta is a staff Researcher and Professor at the Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS) and regular Professor at the Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Argentina. She teaches General history of education, Comparative education and Educational foundations (the latter at Secondary school Teacher education careers at UNGS).For the past 10 years she has specialized on research on the expansion of schooling from a historical and international perspective. She has been an International consultant for OEI/EUROSOciAL (Iberoamerican States Organization) for research studies on secondary schooling in Europe and Latin America and for IIPE UNESCO Buenos Aires (International Institute for Educational planning) for studies on contemporary changes on educational systems from a comparative perspective.

Sergio Munoz obtained his phD in Education at The University of Melbourne in Australia. He is a lecturer of Curriculum and in the Academic Certificate: Generation of Learning Opportunities in Disadvantaged Educational Contexts, and is also a consultant for the IBE-UNESCO and OREALC-UNESCO ( the-experts/ ). His research interests comprise curriculum, citizenship education, educational policies and teacher education. He is currently involved in the project “Tras las huellas de Medellín en la institución escolar: el caso chileno” (In the Footsteps of Medellín in the School Institution: The Chilean Case). Sponsored by: Stipendienwerk Lateienamerika-Deutschland. Intercambio Cultural Alemán – Latinoamericano (ICALA).

Cristián Cox is a Professor at the Faculty of Education of Universidad Diego Portales, Chile. Formerly he was the head of the Curriculum and Evaluation Unit of the Ministry of Education of Chile (1998-2006), Director of the Center for Research on Educational Policy and Practice (CEPPE) of Universidad Católica de Chile (2008-2011), and Dean of this University’s Faculty of Education (2012-2015). A researcher and policy maker, he led the design and implementation of the 1990s curriculum reform of the school system of his country, was Tinker Visiting Professor at Stanford University in 2005, and belongs to the Project Advisory Committee of the International Civic and Citizenship Study (ICCS-2016), of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). He has also worked as a consultant for OECD, World Bank, Inter-American Development Bank, and UNESCO. He has authored, co-authored or edited, 10 books and more than a hundred articles on educational policy, curriculum, teacher education and citizenship education. On this last topic he has just published (with J.C. Castillo and others) a book on the evolution of this area in Chile, Aprendizaje de la Ciudadanía. Contextos, experiencias, resultados (2015), and co-authored a comparative analysis for 6 countries of Latin America, Citizenship education in Latin America: priorities of school curricula (I BE Working Papers Nº 14 (2014)). Has participated or participates in the Editorial Board of journals, Cadernos de Pesquisa (Fundación Carlos Chagas, Brasil), Perfiles Educativos (UNAM, México), Pensamiento Educativo (PEL) (Chile), Encounters (Queen’s University, Canada), Compare (UK), and the just launched, Journal of Professional Capital and Community (USA). Email:

Carlos Martínez Valle holds a PhD in History of Social and Political Ideas and Movements and teaches at the Faculty of Education Universidad Complutense, Madrid. He has worked as a Researcher and Assistant Professor at Humboldt Universtät, Berlin, Germany and a Queen’s University, Canada. Has worked in different European (TMR, Daphne), German (Sonderforschungsbereich 640, Koordinierte Programme der DFG) and Spanish (I+D, ProSpanien) research projects. His work combines intellectual history, history of education and Comparative Education. Using them he has studied the free will controversies in 16th and 17th Century Europe and its political and educational implications. Working languages: French, German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.

Ángela García-Pérez is recipient of the Pre-doctoral Grant of Basque Government (Spain). Master's Degree in Special Educational Needs and in Social Inclusion, both at University of Deusto. She is carrying her PhD on a SERVICE LEARNING project with schools, public and civic administrations promoting together awareness in Urban Accessibility ( Her directors are Aurelio Villa and Aitziber Mugarra. Currently, she is visiting Andrew Furco at the University of Minnesota.Volunteer in Zerbikas Foundation, member of local and international networks. Last publication accepted: "John Dewey’s experiential pedagogy: receptions on some current methodological approaches" (Educatio Siglo XXI, in press). []

Jon Igelmo Zaldivar, Ph.D., is a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Deusto (Bilbao) with a "Juan de la Cierva-incorporación" postdoctoral fellowship of the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. From 2013 to 2015 he was a postdoctoral fellow at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada (2013-14) with a grant from the Basque Country Government Postdoctoral Program (Spain). He defended his Ph.D thesis in 2011 at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). He has published papers in journasl such us Educational Theory, The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, Hispania Sacra, Educación XX1 and Bordón. Since 2013, he is the assistant to the coordinator of the Theory and History of Education International Research Group (Queen's University).

Joe Stafford is a retired history teacher from the Algonquin and Lakeshore Catholic District School Board in Ontario, Canada. He has twenty-nine years of classroom experience and was a department head for seventeen years. In 2008, he received the Governor General’s Award for Excellence in Teaching Canadian History. He is currently a History ofEducation PhD candidate at Queen’s University, Canada

Heidi MacDonald is a historian of twentieth-century Canada with specializations in Atlantic Canada, the Great Depression, women religious, and youth. Her recent publications include articles in Historia de la Educación and Canadian Journal of Sociology, and chapters in The Difference Kids Make, edited by Gleason and Myers, (UBC Press, 2016); Writing Feminist History: Productive Pasts and New Directions, edited by Janovicek and Carstairs (UBC Press, 2013); and Vatican II: Experiences Canadiénnes / Canadian Experiences, edited by Attridge and colleagues (University of Ottawa Press, 2011). Her current SSHRC-funded project is on women religious in Atlantic Canada since 1960.

Elizabeth M. Smyth is Vice-Dean (Programs) at the School of Graduate Studies, University of Toronto, and Professor of Curriculum Teaching and Learning at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. She is a member of the University of Toronto Governing Council and a Senior Fellow of Massey College and the University of St Michael’s College. In 2010 she received the George Edward Clerk Award for outstanding contribution to Canadian religious history. Her most recent edited collections are with Deirdre Raftery, Education, Identity and Women Religious: Convents, Classrooms, and Colleges (Routledge, 2015), and with Tanya Fitzgerald, Women Educators, Leaders, and Activists (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014).

Ana Jofre received her PhD in Physics from the University of Toronto, did Post-doctoral work at NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) in Gaithersburg Maryland, and taught -and did research - at the University of North Carolina in Charlotte for six years before transitioning her career towards the arts. She then completed her MFA at OCAD University in Toronto, then worked as a research fellow in the Visual Analytics Lab at OCAD University, and at the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics Culture Analytics program at UCLA in Los Angeles, California. Her publications and conference presentations cover a wide range of intellectual interests, from physics to critical theory, and she has exhibited her artwork extensively. Her creative and research interests include figurative sculpture, interactive new media, the aesthetics of camp and of the uncanny, public pedagogy, human-computer interaction, and data visualization. She is currently an Assistant Professor in Creative Arts and Technology at SUNY Polytechnic, in Utica NY.

William Pinar is an American educator, curriculum theorist and international studies scholar. Known for his work in the area of curriculum theory, Pinar is strongly associated with the reconceptualist movement in curriculum theory since the early 1970s. In the early 1970s, along with Madeleine Grumet, Pinar introduced the notion of currere, shifting in a radical manner the notion of curriculum as a noun to curriculum as a verb.[1] Apart from his fundamental contributions to theory, Pinar is notable for establishing the Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, founding the Bergamo Conference on Curriculum Theory and Classroom Practice, and founding the International Association for the Advancement of Curriculum Studies. Although Pinar is known best for his publications concerning curriculum theory, he has also spoken about and written on many other topics, including education, cultural studies, international studies, and queer studies.

Ina Ghita is an Education and Society PHD student at the University of Barcelona, Spain. She is interested in the design of technology-mediated learning environments, specifically in how critical thinking and idea exchange are supported and encouraged, as well as building learning environments that motivate users to engage. Ina has a Masters in Education, from Queen’s University, Canada, a Masters in Cognitive Sciences and Interactive Media, and a BA in Journalism.

Chris Beeman holds a PhD from the Faculty of Education, Queen’s University. He is an Assistant Professor at Brandon University. Recent publications include contributions to Encounters in Theory and History of Education, Journal of Experiential Education, The Trumpeter, and Paideusisand a chapter entitled “Authochthonous Ed: Deep: Indigenous, Environmental Learning,” in Teacher Education in a Transnational World, edited by Rosa Bruno-Jofré and James Scott Johnston, University of Toronto Press, 2014. In the past Beeman taught courses in undergraduate programs including Art in an Aboriginal Context and Philosophy of Education, and in the graduate programs, Theories and Meanings in Aboriginal Education and Pedagogy and Transformation in Curriculum, in the Aboriginal and World Indigenous Education Studies program, at Queen's University's Faculty of Education. Through Simon Fraser University, Chris is a research associate with the CURA-sponsored green school in Maple Ridge, BC.

Bonita Uzoruo is Anishinaabe (Thunderbird clan) from southeastern Manitoba, Canada. She attended the University of Manitoba graduating with a Bachelor's degree in Native Studies. She then obtained a Bachelor of Education from Queen's University, specializing in Aboriginal education. For over ten years, Bonita has excelled as an Aboriginal educator in Ontario's public schools. Bonita is a Master's of Education candidate in the Aboriginal and World Indigenous Education Studies program at Queen's University, under the advisement of Dr. Rosa Bruno-Jofré. Her research areas include: Indigenous culture and knowledge-based education, and decolonization and the development of Aboriginal teacher education programs in Canada.

Sol Serrano is Professor at the Institute of History, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. She was Vice President for Research (2015-2017). Her field is political, cultural and religious History of Chile and Latin America. She has been a Visiting Scholar in various university, among others, Oxford University, Harvard University, University of Notre Dame, Université de Paris I Sorbonne, École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Paris, Ibero Amerikanisches Institute in Berlin. Her last books are Qué hacer con Dios en la Republica. Politica y secularización en Chile 1845-1885. Fondo de Cultura Económica, Santiago de Chile ,2008. (2era edición 2009). Historia de la Educación en Chile 1810-2010. T.I Aprender a leer y escribir; T.II La educación nacional., Taurus, Santiago de Chile, 2012, 2nd edition 2013. (Editor with Macarena Ponce de Leon). She is member of the Theory and History of Education International Research Group (Queen's University).

Macarena Ponce de León Atria is an Assistant Professor at the Institute of History of Pontifical Catholic University of Chile. In 1999 she obtained a DEA (Diplôme d’études appliquées) at Paris I, Sorbonne-Pantheon, finished her PhD at the Catholic University of Chile in 2007 where she was a postdoctoral Fellow. She was a visiting fellow at the Kellog Institute for International Studies (University of Notre Dame, USA) and at the Ibero Amerikanisches Institute in Berlin. Her main fields of research are the social and political history of Chile in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. She specializes in the study of the relationship between society and the state through private charity and public welfare, education and her current research project focuses on the practices of political representation and the expansion of political citizenship in the twentieth century. She is author of Gobernar la pobreza. Prácticas de caridad y beneficencia en la ciudad de Santiago, 1830-1890, (Santiago, 2011); and the joint editor with Sol Serrano of the collective volumes,Historia de la educación en Chile, 1810-2010, tomos I and II (Santiago, 2012).

View Participant Bios

Event Organizers

This symposium was made possible by a Connection Grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) of Canada.

SSHRC Connection Grant Applicant:

Rosa Bruno-Jofre
(Queen's University, Canada)


Sol Serrano
(Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile)

Jon Igelmo Zaldívar
(University of Deusto, Spain)


Carlos Martínez Valle
(Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain)

Elizabeth Smyth
(University of Toronto, Canada)

Daniel Tröhler
(University of Zürich, Switzerland)

Supporting Institutions:

Faculty of Education
Queen’s University, Canada

Faculty of History, Geography, and Political Science;
Center for the Study of Educational Policy and Practices;
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile


Conference Program

Tuesday August 1

9:00am - 9:30

Welcoming Remarks:
Professor, Dr.Patricio Bernedo, Dean
Professor Dr. Sol Serrano

Part I: Placing the terms of the debate

9:30 – 10:05

Protestantism and the educationalization of the world.
Daniel Tröhler (University of Vienna, Austria)

10:10 – 10:45

Catholicism and Educationalization.
Rosa Bruno-Jofré (Queen’s University, Canada)

10:50 - 11:30

Discussant: Carlos Martínez Valle (Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain)
Open floor for group discussion

Part II: Educationalization, technologization, and epistemic shifts: Navigating through conceptions , reforms, critiques of curriculum, citizenship, educationalization of spirituality.

13:30 – 14:30

Curriculum and miseducation: A philosophical study of reconceptualist curriculum.
Samuel D. Rocha (University of British Columbia,Canada)

Discussant: Christopher Beeman (Brandon University, Canada)

14:30 - 15:30

Waldorf education: The educationalization of spirituality in the plural context of Spain in the second half of the twentieth century.
Patricia Quiroga Uceda (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Spain)

Discussant: Rosa Bruno-Jofré (Queen’s University)

15:45 - 16:45

Citizenship education and the re-contextualization of national and global requirements: Chile and Argentina (1990s–2000s).
Sergio Riquelme Muñoz (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile) and Cristián Cox (Universidad Diego Portales)

Discussant: Felicitas Acosta (Universidad General Sarmiento, Argentina)

16:45 - 17:45

Educationalization, Schooling, and the Right to Education
Felicitas Acosta ( Universidad General Sarmiento, Argentina)

Discussant: Christian Cox (Universidad Diego Portales, Chile)

Wednesday August 2

9:00 - 10:00

Antigonish, the Great Depression, and the critical re-educationalization of the world.
Josh Cole (Theory and History International Research Group, Queen’s University)

Discussant: Heidi MacDonald (University of Lethbridge, Canada)

Part III Catholic congregations and educationalization: Situating themselves in the educational state and the ruptures of the long 1960s: Canada, Spain, and Latin America

10:15 - 11:15

Educationalization as an expression of multiple modernities: the divide between Catholicism and Protestantism and the Jesuits' approach to education.
Carlos Martínez Valle (Universidad Complutense de Madrid)

Discussant: Jon Igelmo (University of Deusto)

11:15 - 12:15

From Marian Congregation in the 19th century to service learning in the 21st century:
The educationalization of solidarity in the Jesuit Universities in Spain.
Jon Igelmo Zaldívar and Ángela García Pérez (University of Deusto)

Discussant: Rosa Bruno-Jofré (Queen’s University, Canada)

13:30 - 14:30

The educationalization process and the “Catholic mind.”
Joe Stafford (Queen’s University, Canada)

Discussant: Heidi MacDonald (University of Lethbridge)

14:30 - 15:30

The Sisters of Charity (Halifax), adult and community education in Latin America, 1972–2000.
Heidi MacDonald (University of Lethbridge,Canada)

Discussant: Rosa Bruno-Jofré (Queen’s University, Canada)

15:45 - 16:45

The role of religious orders in the educationalization of the modern world.
Elizabeth Smyth (University of Toronto, Canada)

Discussant: Sergio Riquelme Muñoz (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile)

18:00 - 19:30

PUBLIC PANEL: Christianism and Educationalization
Auditorio de la Facultad de Historia, Geografía y Ciencia Política
Chair: Sol Serrano (Universidad Pontificia de Chile)
Rosa Bruno-Jofré (Queen’s University), Carlos Martínez Valle (Universidad Complutense de Madrid), Daniel Tröhler (University of Vienna)
Discussant: Elizabeth Smyth (University of Toronto)

Thursday August 3

9:00 - 10:00

The educationalization in the Spanish Second Republic and the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain in 1932.
Jon Igelmo Zaldívar (University of Deusto)

Discussant: Carlos Martínez Valle (Universidad Complutense de Madrid)

Part IV: Educationalization and democracy in the digital age

10:15 - 11:15

Educationalization and Public Pedagogy in the Digital Age
Ana Jofré (SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Utica, NY)

Discussant: Ina Ghita (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona)

11:15 - 12:15

Educationalization, digital literacy, and democracy
Ina Ghita (Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona)

Discussant: Ana Jofré (SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Utica, NY)

13:30 - 14:30

Educationalization as technologization
William Pinar (University of British Columbia, Canada)

Discussant: Ana Jofré (SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Utica, NY)

Part V: Educationalization, coloniality, and decoloniality: Indigenous peoples in Chile and Canada

14:30 - 15:30

Indigeneity and educationalization
Christopher Beeman (Brandon University, Canada)

Discussant: Sam Rocha (University of British Columbia)

15:45 - 16:45

Teacher education as a tool of decoloniality
Bonita Uzoruo (Queen’s University)

Discussant: Macarena Ponce de Leon (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile)

16:45 - 17:45

Missionary and public schools in the Mapuche community (1900–1940): A fine line between denying and transforming identity.
Sol Serrano and Macarena Ponce de León (Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile)

Discussant: Christopher Beeman (University of Brandon)

Friday August 4

9:00 - 10:00

Conclusion: State of the Question

Discussion led by Sol Serrano

10:30 - 12:00

Meeting of the Theory and History International Research Group to discuss next event


Closing dinner

Educationalization/schooling of social and moral issues in the western world:
Historical dimensions through time and space
and the educationalization of the world

Rosa Bruno-Jofré and Jon Igelmo Zaldívar (Co-editors)

Part I. Placing the terms of the debate

Protestantism and the educationalization of the world - Daniel Tröhler
Whereas over the last 25 years the label “educationalization of social problems” has become internationally popular, the more encompassing label “educationalization of the modern world” aims at understanding and deciphering the grand narratives of modernity and the modern self. It thereby aims historically at uncovering the motives in the late eighteenth century in which social problems (in the largest sense) were translated more and more into educational questions. The paper argues that it is no coincidence that this educational translation took place in Protestant contexts, for in one of the characteristics of Protestantism, it had turned from the Catholic emphasis on the institution (the Holy Mother Church) to a focus on the individual’s soul as the instance of salvation, with no fundamental need of consecrated mediators (priests) between God and the individual. The educationalization of social problems thus turned to focus on the soul of the individual and according to the two different Protestant denominations, German Protestantism (Lutheranism) and Swiss Reformed Protestantism (Zwinglianism and Calvinism), out of which two different educational theories on the modern self emerged: the politically, indifferent and antimaterialistic contemplative educational ideology of Bildung and the Swiss Reformed Protestant ideology of the virtuous citizen. 

Catholicism and the educationalization of the world - Rosa Bruno-Jofré
This paper will frame Catholic education developments precedent or even parallel to the drive to the educationalization of social problems situated by Tröhler (previous chapter) in the eighteenth century within the context of early modernity. It goes back to the sixteenth century to consider the creation of the Society of Jesus, the Concilium of Trent’s intent to educationalize the faith, and the spiritual renewal of the seventeenth century and its concern with social issues. The Catholic side of educationalization as a counterpoint to or critical engagement with modernity took its full shape in the nineteenth century, along with ultramontanism and an explosion of religious congregations engaged in foreign missions. The last part of the paper concentrates on the 2nd Vatican Council focus on schooling and the social pastoral, which made formal and informal education the main instruments with which to solve social problems, in many cases through the empowerment of agents/believers.

Part II. Educationalization, technologization, and epistemic shifts: Navigating through conceptions , reforms, critiques of curriculum, citizenship, educationalization of spirituality.

Educationalization as technologization - William Pinar
One form of “educationalization” is technologization. In education, technology is not only expressed as instrumental rationality and in its more obvious forms such as computers and other devices, it is registered in the conviction that humanity’s salvation requires its domination of nature, including human nature. The Canadian philosopher George Grant critiqued the cultural consequences of technology over fifty years ago. In my contribution to understanding educationalization, I will juxtapose Grant’s prescient critique of technology with trends today, among them the quantification of educational outcomes, the technologizing of teaching, and the moving of curriculum online. I will reference research that suggests that the overuse of technology undermines the social and intellectual development of children as it also exposes them to scenes of bullying in which parents and teachers cannot always promptly intervene. What would Grant recommend? With answers to that question I will conclude.

Curriculum and miseducation: A philosophical study of reconceptualist curriculum - Samuel D. Rocha
The shift in thinking that occurred in what is called the “reconceptualization of curriculum” in the 1970s took curriculum away from plans and methods of education towards more complex questions and conversations about education. The inspiration of this movement was literary, philosophical, and historical. In other words, the foundation of this radical new way of thinking about curriculum was founded on a humanistic engagement. What is curious then about the present state of the field that this movement founded, called “curriculum theory” or “curriculum studies,” is that social scientific research has taken over the vast bulk of the project. In this paper, I consider this progression—from an originary humanistic reconceptualization to a social scientific field of status quo research—as a philosophical problem in itself. This shift then is a particular form of educationalization that raises important and critical themes related to modernity, implicit theological assumptions, and the need for a return to the humanities.

Waldorf education: The educationalization of spirituality in the plural context of Spain in the second half of the twentieth century - Patricia Quiroga Uceda
A second wave of secularization took place in the 1960s in Spain mostly due to development and mass consumption. During this time of Catholic Franco’s dictatorship, a desire to explore new forms of spirituality emerged among the middle classes. Without abandoning Catholicism nor the notion of transcendence or fullness, these individuals sought more open expressions of spirituality, even esoteric ones, and/or religious alternatives. The reception of anthroposophy and related pedagogy took place in Spain within the context of this personal search. Waldorf education, based on anthroposophy, proposed an educational method based on spiritual development. Its promotion of self-development and the Christian language used fit well with the search for a new spirituality, while remaining framed in the Christian tradition. The author argues that Waldorf education in Spain was appealing because it was a proposal of the educationalization of spirituality at the beginning of the second wave of secularization in Spain.

Antigonish, the Great Depression, and the critical re-educationalization of the world - Josh Cole
As many scholars argue, in the modern period, education became intertwined with capitalism on the one hand, and a “progressive” vision of history on the other—leading to an “educationalization” of social problems. I will explore the strengths and limitations of this thesis through the response to the Great Depression mounted by Antigonish, a famous Canadian adult education project. These educators sought to counter this economic crisis with a grassroots project of re-educationalization, combining educational work on the ground with mass-mediated distance education and learner-directed study groups, all geared towards giving ordinary people the tools to understand and alter the course of a modernity seemingly gone wrong. I will use both primary and secondary materials to explore Antigonish’s singular take on education, modernity, and critical andragogy, while drawing out lessons for educators and historians in 2016—another time of profound, (post)modern/neoliberal crisis.

Educationalization, Schooling, and the Right to Education - Felicitas Acosta
In the last ten years, the “educationalization” of social problems has become more central to analyses of schooling. This paper examines how, in recent decades, Latin America has experienced the expansion of schooling within the framework of the right to education, and relates that framework to the concept of educationalization. While both right to education and educationalization processes equate education and schooling, the right to education represents the legal–moral facet of the growing educationalization of society. This paper aims to provide a better understanding of educationalization and its circulation around the globe through an overview of Latin American history in relation to the expansion, breadth, and limits of schooling; educational problems that schooling resolves and those it fails to resolve; and the effects of envisioning the right to education from the perspective of the right to schooling.

Citizenship education and the re-contextualization of national and global requirements: Chile and Argentina (1990s–2000s) - Sergio Riquelme Muñoz and Cristián Cox
This paper compares how citizenship education was defined and developed in the Chilean and Argentinean school curricula during their transition to democracy in the 1990s and 2000s. The analysis is placed within the context of current processes of educationalization with multiple intentionalities. The focus is on commonalities and differences and the comparison is placed in relation to global trends on curriculum and citizenship education and their reception. Furthermore, the erosion of social bonds, individualization, the increasing detachment of young generations in terms of participation in formal political processes, and the need to deal with a plural world are major contextual challenges. Methodologically, our study operationalizes the civil/civic distinction and examines how the two countries organized goals and content in order to address the challenges of living together, not only with close others (civil dimension) but also with distant others (civic dimension).

Part III. Catholic congregations and educationalization: Situating themselves in the educational state and the ruptures of the long 1960s: Canada, Spain, and Latin America.

Educationalization as an expression of multiple modernities: the divide between Catholicism and Protestantism and the Jesuits' approach to education - Carlos Martínez Valle
The paper provides a background to explain the differences between the early Protestant ideas on education and the emerging Catholic educational conceptions, in particular those of the Jesuits in the sixteenth century. This examination of divide that runs through both Catholicism and Protestantism is centered in the central theological question of salvation and its implications for education. The goal of the paper is to trace and explore the characteristics of the Jesuit educational enterprises based on the free will soteriology (doctrine of salvation). The Jesuits played a central role in the Catholic educationalization process, including missions in Latin America and the formation of Catholic leaders, and exerted great influence on other teaching congregations.

From Marian Congregation in the 19th century to service learning in the 21st century: The educationalization of solidarity in the Jesuit Universities in Spain - Jon Igelmo Zaldívar and Ángela García Pérez
Jean Leunis founded the Marian Congregations in 1563. Historically, this lay congregation had been linked with the Jesuit Higher Education Institutions, encouraging students first experiences in social apostolate. In 1967, as a result of the Second Vatican Council and in the context of the United Nations’ support of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), the Marian Congregations were transformed into the Christian Life Communities (CVX-CVL). After this renewal, the organization adopted as a reference for its organization the official structure of the NGO. Taking as a reference a longue dureé approach, we address the continuity in terms of the educationalization of solidarity between the Marian Congregation in the end of the 19th century and the learning service projects now implemented in Jesuit Universities in the 21st century. We focus on the case of the University of Deusto, a Jesuit higher education institution founded in 1886 in Bilbao, Spain.

The educationalization process and the “Catholic mind.” - Joe Stafford
This paper examines how the educationalization process of the Roman Catholic Church developed in North America, beginning in the late 1800s when the Church adopted neo-Thomism as an “antidote” to counter what it viewed as the intellectual and philosophical “errors” of modernity. In North America, the Church experienced considerable success in this educationalization process, which was facilitated by the classical culture that North American Catholics shared—a culture that provided a collective worldview that provided meaning for individuals. Whereas this classical culture began to be transformed, in the early seventeenth century, to an empiricist culture in which individuals themselves determined their own sense of meaning and set of values, this transformation did not occur in the “Catholic world” until Vatican II. The result was the development of what has been termed the “Catholic mind”—a mindset shaped by the dominant philosophy of neo-Thomism in North American Catholic schools.

The Sisters of Charity (Halifax), adult and community education in Latin America, 1972–2000 - Heidi MacDonald
Until the mid-1960s, the Sisters of Charity, Halifax, the largest English-speaking congregation of women religious in Canada, focused primarily on teaching in eastern Canadian and American Catholic and public schools. At that time, in accordance with Vatican II guidelines, they withdrew from the majority of their institutional teaching commitments to focus on less formal and more direct work with the poor, both locally and globally. This paper focuses on two of their post-Vatican II Latin American missions in Peru and the Dominion Republic, highlighting the Sisters’ collaboration with local women in developing employment, childcare, and home management skills; contrasting their new teaching methodologies with previous techniques; contextualizing their work within liberation theology; and assessing their commitment to the “preferential option for the poor”.

The role of religious orders in the educationalization of the modern world - Elizabeth Smyth
This paper challenges the argument presented by Trohler, and posits that by their large and growing presence and orientation, Roman Catholic and Anglican religious played a critical role in the transnational expansion of education systems during the long eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Their school curricula were aligned with the state, upholding the same goal of “strengthening the soul towards (civic) virtue” (Trohler, 2016). Drawing evidence from the archives of three Toronto-based religious orders—the Congregation of St Basil, the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and the Congregation of the Sisters of St Joseph—this paper demonstrates that through curriculum, instruction, and teacher development, these Roman Catholic teachers were engaging with modernity as they actively shaped their pupils for the state-regulated emerging professions.

The educationalization in the Spanish Second Republic and the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spain in 1932 - Jon Igelmo Zaldívar
The Spanish Second Republic, after its proclamation in April 1931, assumed as a key problem state citizen formation. The republican idea of one state with the capacity of monopolizing all formal education contains the impulse of consigning to education the mission of coping with perceived social, economical, and political problems. In this impulse the influence of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza is noticeable. I analyze in this paper the expulsion of the Jesuits by Republic authorities in 1932. I take as a reference the three Faculties of Theology for Jesuits working at that time in Spain (Granada, Barcelona and Oña). By using primary sources found in the Archivum Romanum Societatis Iesu in Rome, I focus on the process of occupation of those three centres by the republican authorities. I claim that the Spanish Republic, with the seizure of the institutions of this Catholic congregation, tried to replace the Society of Jesus in its leading historical role in the process of educationalization of the Spanish society from the Catholic perspective.

Part IV. Educationalization and democracy in the digital age

Educationalization and Public Pedagogy in the Digital Age - Ana Jofré
I begin with the premise that data literacy is a fundamental facet of citizen education in this information age, and that an engaged citizenry in a democracy not only requires access to data, but also a clear understanding of its meaning. Digital technology has allowed for unprecedented access to knowledge, and the means by which to understand it, but there remain open questions about how people are assimilating digital information. The main questions around using digital media for pedagogy are about how to create situations where learners are actively engaged rather than passively receptive, about how to present data in a way that is meaningful, and about how to create community and foster collaboration despite the highly individualized experience that digital media offers. In this paper, I address these questions, reviewing the ways in which digitalization has made data accessible through interactive visualizations and 3-dimensional representation, and within this context, I present some projects within my art and design practice in public pedagogy.

Educationalization, digital literacy, and democracy - Ina Ghita
In the past decades, the long standing movement toward educationalization has been accomplished to an important extent through digital technology literacy. Digital technology is cultivated across all disciplines and has influenced the way we research and write/represent history. I argue that digital history is particularly relevant in the building of a democratic polity. Yet, very few contemporary digital history projects make use of technology in a way that allows users to interact with and manipulate the data presented, or engage in a dialogue with their creators. In this paper, I explore the negative effects this form of one-way communication can have on individuals and society, starting with passivity and suppression of critical thinking, and resulting in lack of understanding and interest in democracy.

Part V. Educationalization, coloniality, and decoloniality: Indigenous peoples in Chile and Canada

Indigeneity and educationalization - Christopher Beeman
In Canada and elsewhere, the process of educationalization has successfully integrated the interests of the state with the systemic oppression of Indigenous peoples. Broadly, educationalization dissociates the education of people from the economic, social, and political problems of the culture as a whole, while simultaneously viewing processes of education as ways to solve these “societal” problems. Applied to the education of Aboriginal peoples today, the parallels are very clear: a colonized identity, coupled with systemic factors leading to Aboriginal failure, effectively preclude young Aboriginal learners from success when studying the problem in detail. Aboriginal scholars may become expert in understanding their oppression, but the ways in which this knowledge can be turned into systemic change are withheld. Those living Indigenously are even more likely to find their interests unrepresented in formal educational practices because this way of life is antithetical to the perceived interests of the state.

Teacher education as a tool of decoloniality - Bonita Uzoruo
The Aboriginal peoples of Canada experienced a process of educationalization/ assimilation through the residential schools in which the agenda of the educational state converged with the agenda of the Catholic Church and traditional Protestant denominations. In the 1970s and 1980s there was a shift toward control of schooling by the Aboriginal peoples in the process of affirming their identity and human rights. The conception of Aboriginally controlled education took place within provincial teacher education programs. The paper examines the creation in Manitoba of the Project of the Education of Native Teachers (PENT) and the Indian-Métis Project for Careers through Teacher Education (IMPACTE). The authors pay examine the programs within the historical configuration that took shape in the long 1960s (late fifties to mid 1970s) the struggles over the program in light of epistemic shift in education and political and economic agendas affecting education.

Missionary and public schools in the Mapuche community (1900–1940): A fine line between denying and transforming identity. Sol Serrano and Macarena Ponce de León
The processes of educationalization leading to the colonization of the Mapuche people in Chile, after the military occupation of their territory in 1888, engaged both the state and the Church through the congregations’ teaching missionary work. However, the processes were different: while the state used the school to destroy the ethnic identity of the Mapuches, Catholic missionaries founded Mapuche schools. The latter, though they introduced students to the values and knowledge of the western world, were not seen by the Mapuche people as negating their identity as was happening with the public schools. This paper focuses on both the public schools and the work of the Bavarians in the Araucania between 1900 and 1940, including the interaction between forms of knowledge in the missionary schools. It shows how the first Mapuche organizations that claimed the right to land and to their culture were formed by students of the missionary school.

The postcolonial Chilean school and ethnic identity amongst young Mapuches in Santiago, Chile. María Eugenia Merino
This paper describes the role of the Chilean school in the construction of ethnic identity amongst young urban Mapuches in Santiago, Chile. I focus on current educationalization and its postcolonial sediments, which are revealed through the young people’s historical and cultural discourses, and in the dialectics of the indigenous and diasporic histories of their elders who have migrated from southern communities. I approach the study through an interactional socio-narrative analysis which recognizes the discursive sedimented processes in ethnic identity construction and the intertextuality operating between dominant and non-dominant discourses. Findings reveal that the current Chilean school impacts young people’s Mapuche identity, which exhibits a dilemmatic character, observed, for example, in the discursive tension between “being” and “feeling” Mapuche. This is due to the imperative of participating in Chilean society within a context of asymmetrical intercultural relationships.

Conclusion: The state of the question

The conclusion will pull the main themes together and summarize the terms of the debate in relation to the processes of educationalization and issues regarding Protestantism and Catholicism.

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Facultad de Historia, Geografía y Ciencia Política
Sala Seminario
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
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